1.5 – There are five types of fluctuations in consciousness. These are either obstructing or non-obstructing.
वृत्तयः पञ्चतय्यः क्लिष्टाक्लिष्टाः ॥५॥ vrittayah pancatayah klishta aklishta
- vrittayah – “the vrittis are”; vrittis – fluctuations, modifications; activities, movements
- pancatayah – five-fold; having five parts
- klishta – obstructive; afflictive; painful; tormented; obscured; colored
- aklishta – non-obstructive; non-afflictive; non-painful; non-tormented; non-obscured; non-colored
1.6 – The five types of fluctuations in consciousness are: 1) accurate knowing, 2) illusions, 3) delusions, 4) deep sleep, and 5) memory.
प्रमाणविपर्ययविकल्पनिद्रास्मृतयः ॥६॥ pramana viparyaya vikalpa nidra smritayah
- pramana – accurate knowing; valid proof; evidence
- viparyaya – illusion; wrong knowledge; misperception; opposite of; turning around
- vikalpa – delusion; imagination; false notion; fancy
- nidra – deep sleep; slumber
- smritayah – memory; recollection; remembrance
1.7 – Accurate knowing can come from clear perception, inference, or from wise sources.
प्रत्यक्षानुमानागमाः प्रमाणानि ॥७॥ pratyaksha anumana agamah pramanani
- pratyaksha – clear perception; direct perception; self-evident; visible
- anumana – inference; consideration; reflection
- agamah – wise sources; sacred works; traditional doctrines or precepts
- pramanani – accurate knowing; valid means of proof
1.8 – Illusions are distorted perceptions with no solid foundation in reality.
विपर्ययः मिथ्याज्ञानमतद्रूपप्रतिष्ठम् ॥८॥ viparyayah mithya jnanam atad rupa pratistham
- viparyayah – misperception; illusion; wrong knowledge; opposite of; turning around
- mithya – illusion; unreal; distorted; falsity; error in understanding
- jnanam – knowledge; awareness
- atad – not that
- rupa – appearance; form
- pratistham – foundation; ground; stability
1.9 – Delusions are mental concepts devoid of truth.
शब्दज्ञानानुपाती वस्तुशून्योविकल्पः ॥९॥ shabda jnana anupati vastu shunyah vikalpah
- shabda – word; sound; name; voice; tone
- jnana – knowledge; awareness
- anupati – depending on; following
- vastu – object; thing; truth; fact
- shunyah – devoid of; empty of
- vikalpah – delusion; imagination; false notion; fancy
1.10 – Deep sleep is a movement in consciousness which sustains the mental state of nothingness.
अभावप्रत्ययालम्बना तमोवृत्तिर्निद्र ॥१०॥ abhava pratyaya alambana vritti nidra
- abhava – nothingness; absence; void; negation
- pratyaya – contents of consciousness; mental content; notion; cognition; conception
- alambana – base; sustaining; support; foundation; depending on; resting upon
- vritti – fluctuations; modifications; activities; movements
- nidra – deep sleep; slumber
1.11 – Memories are the retention of previous experiences.
अनुभूतविषयासंप्रमोषः स्मृतिः ॥११॥ anubhuta vishaya asampramoshah smritih
- anubhuta – experienced; tasted; perceived
- vishaya – object of sensory experience; content; subject matter; impressions
- asampramoshah – retaining; not letting drop
- smritih – memory; recollection; remembrance
Commentary on Sutras 1.5—1.11:The fluctuations in consciousness (vrittis) form five recognizable patterns or configurations. Some of these patterned movements are non-restrictive. Others obstruct our clear perception of Awareness and the world and cause us pain and suffering. The five patterned movements in consciousness are:
- Accurate knowing
- Deep sleep